Monday, May 25, 2020
Same-Sex Marriage In the article, Supreme Court Rules in Favor of Same-Sex Marriage Nationwide, the article discusses the main event, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s insight on the event, quotes and beliefs of Kennedy, and it also goes a couple years back in time to explain some events leading up to this Supreme Court ruling. In the beginning of the article, it is discussed how the Supreme Court ruled that same-sex marriage is now legal in all 50 states on June 26th, 2015. People gathered outside of the white house and celebrated the event. It is stated that this Supreme Court ruling is 46 years after a riot for gay rights in New York. The article then discusses Kennedy, being an advocate for gay rights. He valued family, love and liberty. The article discusses what Kennedy has said in the past, writing for gay rights and that all couples should be able to marry in all states. The article provides these words written by Kennedy: Ã¢â¬Å"No union is more profound than marriage, for it embodies the highest ideas of lov e, fidelity, devotion, sacrifice and familyÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"In forming a marital union, two people become something greater than they once wereÃ¢â¬ . The article also states that Kennedy believed that the constitution gives all people in United States, this right. Others opinions are also shared on this event, one being that this has nothing to do with the constitution. A quote from Justice Antonin Scalia is stated in the article about how people should celebrate this event, but not to celebrate theShow MoreRelatedHow Is Marriage Defined?1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages How is marriage defined? Any of the diverse forms of interpersonal union established invarious partd of the world to form a familial bond that is recognized legally, religiously, or socially, granting the participating partners mutual conjugal rights and responsibilities and including, for example, opposite-sex marriage, same-sex marriage, plural marriage, and arranged marriage. Sadly many religions still will not accept same sex marriage. A ruling by Massachusetts highest court that prohibitingRead MoreSupreme Court Rules Gay Marriage939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGay Marriage Is a Nationwide Right. The Supreme Court on Friday ruled same-sex couples across the nation have a protected right to wed, a milestone choice that scrapes away state bans on gay unions and tops a fast American change on the importance of marriage (Bravin, 2015). The 5-4 choice composed by Justice Anthony Kennedy, his fourth real gay rights, administering more than two decades, struck down limitations in power in 13 states and means each of the 50 states must perceive same-sex unionsRead MoreThe Amendment Of Same Sex Marriage1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesallow same sex couples to marry or have a marriage license. The Fourteenth Amendment talks about the right for Due Process. The Fourteenth Amendment protects privacy rights. Obergefell vs Hodges talks about same sex marriage. Some states did not want to give marriage licenses to the same sex and that wa s part of the issue in Obergefell versus Hodges. In the 1980s, it was hard to be gay or lesbian. It was considered criminal in some states. The Fourteenth Amendment does support the case of same sexRead MoreCase Analysis : Obergefell V. Hodges1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesheld that same sex couples can now exercise the fundamental right of marriage nationwide. Justice Kennedy reached this result by redefining what marriage is. James Obergefell and John Arthur married in Maryland in 2013. They lived in Ohio, which did not recognize same sex marriage. When John Arthur was diagnosed with ALS, the couple sued to have ObergefellÃ¢â¬â¢s name placed on the death certificate as a surviving spouse. The U.S. District Court overturned OhioÃ¢â¬â¢s law banning same-sex marriage. The respondentsRead MoreThe Constitutional History II On The United States1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgay marriage in the United States were a minority group for quite some time. (Green, 2015) The topic of homosexuality and same sex marriage is one that probes the primary question of whether or not same sex marriages are ones fundamental right under both the Due Process Clause and Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. (Lempert, 2015) The case of Obergefell v. Hodges was a case that held that the Fourteenth Amendment requires all states to recognize and grant same sex marriage licensesRead MoreThe Legalization Of Gay Marriage 1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnna Aiello Professor Jessica Lugo College Writing 1 25 September 2015 The Legalization of Gay Marriage A New York Times article honors that on June 26th, the United States declared same-sex marriage a right nationwide. Ã¢â¬Å"Love wins,Ã¢â¬ chanted the crowd outside the Supreme Court (Liptak). The Supporters of same-sex marriage celebrated the new feeling they received of love equality. For many years, homosexuals companions have been deprived from their right to become legally united. ThisRead MoreThe Rights Of Same Sex Marriage1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesas the Marriage Protection Amendment, Proposition 102 was placed on the ballot and passed by Arizona voters in 2008, amending the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Constitution which defined the traditional sense of marriage between a man and a woman. However, on October 17, 2014, a federal judge disagreed with voters and overruled Prop 102, claiming that the ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional. Not long after the decision Attorney General Tom Horne stated that there would be no appeal and same-sex marriages wouldRead MoreMarriage Rights For Gay People967 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages After considering the following topics to research, I decided to narrow my research to marriage rights for gay people. I remember the day it happened when marriage became legal for gay people because it was a sigh of relief, and it was about time that gay people were allowed to marry in the United States regardless of the state they were in. My step brother whom I am very close with is gay, so I do not know if that is the real reason why I feel so strongly and passionate about gay rights, such asRead MoreGay Marriage Essay1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGay Marriage People should be able to marry whomever they want and they shouldnt have the fear to be judged and have the same rights of everybody else becasue they are people just like us. Gay marriage has affected the country in many ways. It was legalized just two years ago by the Supreme Court ruling it (www.theatlantic.com). I chose this topic because people should do what they want and marry who they want so they have the same rights as everybody else. There was 14 states that did not allowRead MoreThe Against Gay Marriage : Racism Or Proverb1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Opposition to Gay Marriage: Racism or Proverb Racism is the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. But discrimination is a treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category. Is the opposition to gay marriage an act of racism, discrimination or truth? Homosexuality and
Friday, May 15, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
JSB273 CRIME RESEARCH METHODS ASSESSMENT ONE - ESSAY Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods Jaimee Baird N9155465 Lecturer: Claire Ferguson Thursday 11am Ã¢â¬â 1pm C405 In submitting this work I declare that, unless otherwise acknowledged, this work is wholly my own. I understand that my work may be submitted to SafeAssign and consent to this taking place. Word Count: Declaration of Authorisation Introduction Qualitative and quantitative research methods are two most common approaches used when conducting a research task on a criminological issue. Some studies use both approaches together to further enhance and support their research and information, while others choose to use just one. The decision to use oneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Newman and Benz (1998, 3) explain qualitative methods have the aim of developing a theory explaining what they have witnessed and investigated in their observations. Researchers can collect data already having set proposed and pre-determined questions and asking these questions in an interview setting or allowing the participant to write their answers on a test structured format (Creswell 2003, 17). Another method of research also includes interviews, group or singular, however taking either a more guided or free speech conversation (Tewksbury 2009, 43). Different from question based studies, qualitative researchers also acquire their information in the form of observation. This can occur in two ways, either they openly acknowledge and explain they are observing participants out in the field or observe in secret. This method can be described as a method of immersion (Tewksbury 2009, 54). Quantitative research is most easily defined as being statistical and based entirely around numbers and figures. Quantitative begins with a theory within criminology and the researcher tests and researches into this theory gathering evidence through methods of surveys and experiments to confirm and support the theory (Creswell 2003, 7 and Newman and Benz 1998, 3). Quantitative studies have full control of the variables and can manipulate the data to support their argument or theory. The results ofShow MoreRelatedQuantitative Methods : The Role Of Statistics1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesQUANTITATIVE METHODS: ROLE OF STATISTICS IN RESEARCH Name Course Instructor University City Date QUANTITATIVE METHODS: ROLE OF STATISTICS IN RESEARCH Quantitative research is an effective method of analyzing statistical data. The method refers to a systematic, experiential investigation that regards discernible phenomenon through computation or mathematical techniques (BaloÃÅ¸lu, KoÃ §ak, Zelhart 2007). Quantitative research aims at developing and employing mathematical hypothesis and modelsRead MoreQuantitative Research Design Is The Standard Experimental Method Of Most Scientific Disciplines1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesQuantitative research design is the standard experimental method of most scientific disciplines. These experiments are sometimes referred to as true science, and use traditional mathematical and statistical means to measure results conclusively. They are most commonly used by physical scientists, although social sciences, education and economics have been known to use this type of research. It is the opposite of qualitative research. Quantitative experiments all use a standard format, with a fewRead MoreQualitati ve And Quantitative Research Design1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesResearch and Program Evaluation This paper will compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research designs. While giving the information, I will also elaborate on the types of research designs that they both implore. At the end of the paper, the reader will have a better understanding for qualitative and quantitative research designs and when to use each type of design. Qualitative Research Design Cresswell (2014) states Ã¢â¬Å"qualitative methods rely on text and image data, have unique stepsRead MoreWeek 1 RSCH 8300860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespost Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Researchers often times are faced with the decision of choosing a methodology of research; either Quantitative or Qualitative that they think best fits their study and objectives. This choice is guarded by the topic of study, the advantages and disadvantages, and the strengths and weaknesses of using either one or the other type of the methodologies. Researchers are sometimes using Quantitative and Qualitative research methodologies interchangeablyRead MoreUsing Systematic And Formal Procedures1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTherefore, the term research needs to be defined and explained before preceding to data collection methods which are the objective of this research. The term research has been defined multiple researchers throughout various disciplines due to the spectrum of viewing research. Waltz and Bausell(1981) referred to research as phenomena interpretations and problems solving using systematic and formal procedures. Furthermore, Payton (1979) defined research as finding answers for research questions implementingRead MorePSY 325 Statistics for Behavioral and Social Science, Ashford1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfive research studies from peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last ten years, which investigate a particular social science problem or topic. The Final Paper will focus on critiquing the varying stati stical approaches used in each of these studies. Your assignment this week is to identify the topic that you intend to focus on for your Final Paper. You may identify any social science problem or topic; however, it must be something that has been studied using quantitative researchRead MoreComparing Quantitative and Qualitative Research1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCOMPARING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Social theory is a Ã¢â¬Å"system of interconnected ideas that condenses and organises the knowledge about the social world and explains how it worksÃ¢â¬ (Neuman, 2006, p.8) and for many years scientists have gathered data using specialised techniques such as Quantative and Qualitative research to support or reject these theories. Quantitative research Ã¢â¬Å"generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers,Ã¢â¬ (Experiment Resources, 2009,Read MoreArticle Analysis: Utilizing Conjoint Analysis to Explicate Healthcare Decision Making1098 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesanalysis to explicate health care decision making by emergency department nurses. Applied Nursing Research. 23 (1): 30-5. Fisher, et al., (2010) published a quantitative and descriptive study using clinical simulations and conjoint analysis to understand decision making by ER nurses when dealing with individuals who have intellectual disabilities. Essentially, conjoint analysis is a conceptual/statistical model that uses a number of attributes that require participants to make decision trade-offs. ARead MoreThe Importance Of Quantitative And Qualitative Research1012 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesQualitative and qualitative analysis has been adopted since time immemorial in providing relevance to data. By description, a quantitative research employs numerical data to quantify the adversity of a situation; thus, it addresses effect (Jonassen, 2008). The quantitative analysis involves the use of scientific methods and statistical computations to transform data into a format that is easy to interpret (Polit, Beck, 2017). On the other hand, a qualitative study seeks to identify explanationsRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Design1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnumber of research methodologies to carry out, test, analyze and describe phenomena they are interested in studying. Among the most widely used methodologies are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method (Cozby Bates, 2012, Garza Landrum, 2015; Leedy Ormrod, 2013; Creswell, 2013; Gergen, 2015). Qualitative and quantitative research designs, for example, are types of research approaches that provide clear directions on how to carry out a research plan (Creswell, 2013). The quantitative research
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write about theStop Making Plans and Start Making Decisions. Answer: Introduction The topic for this essay is STOP MAKING PLANS; START MAKING DECISIONS. From the primary analysis we get the impression that one should not only make plans to execution certain task but also work towards implementing the whole task and also in allotted time. Making a perfect plan to tackle any situation is always has been the easy part but one does not know about the unexpected real life challenges he could face in carrying out the task which is always the difficult part. Therefore it is always advised to make small goals and implement it in given time and then devise future plan. Discussion The article was written by Harvard in their Harvard business review in January 2006 in volume 84(1) in pp 76 to 84 the article has been written with the view of strategic planning in business (Mankins and Steele 2006). The article starts with the question whether the strategic planning in business is of any use or it is completely useless. The issue was analyzed by the CEO of the companies. The older tradition where companys leaders would sit together and go through the endless PowerPoint presentation which provided them few solutions to tackle the business challenges. To overcome this limitation, the executives of the company decided to sidestep their formal strategy planning process where decision was made on less information and heated debate among them. The members complained that the meetings were long on exhortationbut short on executable ideas for the company. The company executive came up with certain changes in strategy planning. To ensure an effective discussion, the topic of the discussion and all presentation materials of the meeting was sent to employees before the week of meeting . The discussion session were extended to give ample time to each of them to present their views and come to an effective conclusion .Instead of calling the unit heads of the company for meetings the executives decided to visit each of the 22 unit for six weeks to have a long meeting with the managers regarding the ongoing strategy and have problems the company is facing. After implementing the new strategy the CEO tried to gather the feedbacks from the employees and to his surprise the employees were not satisfied with the new strategy as it took much time and on a very high level which was very different from their ways of carrying out the business. Failing of the strategy many executives grew skeptical of strategic planning whether it is of any use. Despite of all time, money, energy spent on the planning it was a complete failure. Analyzing the dilemma of the executives Harvard business review has come up with some reasons as why the strategy planning of the company fails. The company should analyze their root problems and give up calendar-driven planning processesand come up with continuous issue focus decision making plan (Norton and Marmaros 2013). In order to overcome the issue the company has stopped were focused more on taking decision rather than making long term plans. According to the article the company which follow the given process they made twice as more decision as before following the traditional planning model. Harvard business has conducted survey among 156 large companies regarding how effectively company executed their long term plans for the company. According to them strategic planning which are bounded to timing structure is an obstacles to good decision making. The companies should make strategic decisions which are constrained by calendar planned meeting. As long as company depend on calendar planned strategic planning meeting they cannot drive to decision making and without any decisions making the meeting is of no use. The Strategic plans meeting cannot be successful if it is not focused on decision making. The company cannot focus on to a better decision making as long as they are restricted to individual business units and limited by the calendar. The article has concluded that many companies are now doing meeting which is focused heavily on decision making through the continuous identification and systematic resolution of strategic issues (Rumelt 2012). Various successful companies focus their strategy discussions mainly on issues which are limited and also important, which can span multiple businesses. These companies has moved away from business to business plan models which has proved to be successful especially when managing the large business and complex organization where making strategy decision is quite difficult as different division manger will devise a plan in keeping mind their own unit which may not be helpful for other unit of the company. (Bronzite 2012)The article STOP MAKING PLANS AND START MAKING DECISIONS seems to be a social topic, but the Harvard has written the article from business point of view which can be applied in business. Therefore the article should be written in such a way that it also includes the challenges in normal day to day life and how can it be overcome. The essay article STOP MAKING PLANS AND START MAKING DECISIONS has been written after analyzing the various surveys which has been done regarding the timing of strategic planning the analysis of these surveys has produced their views. In 2005, Marakon Associates who has collaborated with Economist Intelligence Unit to survey the senior executives of the 156 large companies in the world where each of them having the sales of over one billion dollars or more than that ,the surveys consisted of forty percent of those companies which have sale over ten billion dollars (Johnston and Bate, 2013). The survey was done to analyze how the executives developed their companies long term plans and how effective their planning drove them to the strategic decisions. Harvard business also conducted surveys regarding the implementation of calendar effect and they analyzed that over sixty six percent of the companies have calendar dependent planning. A survey which was conducted to find whether the pl anning by the executives was worth their effort they find that only eleven percent executives were satisfied with the result of their planning (Daellenbach, McNickle and Dye, 2012). In another survey conducted among executive to find whether the top managers are effectively involved in all strategic planning they found that only thirteen percent of the executives were satisfied that top manger cooperate in strategic planning. The article has been written keeping business management in mind. From the various surveys conducted worldwide. Analyzing the article various conclusions can be derived. Firstly the company important strategic planning meeting should not be constrained to calendars and times, it should be setup any time when required (Birkinshaw et al.2014). According to article ,the company which depend on rigid business schedule and follow calendar scheduled meeting they make 2.5 strategic meeting on an average in year which is very less in order to manage business. The strategic decision should be regular to study the growth of the company. Secondly the meeting should not be review and approve but there should be a healthy debate between members and take an important decision. The companies should not only make plans but also take important decisions. Thirdly the successful companies conducts their strategic meeting on finite issues which are important . which can be extended to multiple businesse s (Johnston and Bate 2013) (De Reuver, Bouwman and Haaker 2013). Moving away from traditional business-by-business planning model it has proved to be helpful specifically to large organization which has to make decision taking all its subsidiaries (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa 2015). The plans made during the meeting is not approved by each one as each division manager attempts to cover every aspect of the units strategy. The article Stop Making Plans; Start Making Decisions written by Harvard business review can be considered as reliable and trustworthy which businessmen can follow as it is written with the support of various surveys conducted worldwide by them. The surveys include senior executives of 156 large companies which have sales of over a billion dollars and revenue over ten billion dollars. The article has also given examples of big companies like Microsoft, Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA), Diageo, Textron, Cardinal Health, and Cadburys. It describes about the problem they faced and how they manage to find its solution (Proctor, 2014). Therefore it is implied that the article has been written in keeping minds the case studies of big companies, so the solution of the problem given in the article is reliable and can be implemented to solve the business problem( Vaccaro, Van Den Bosch and Volberda, 2012). Conclusion From the essay it can be concluded that the article that strategic planning often act as barrier to effective decision making and has a little influence on making strategy. Strategic planning always fails because of two reasons. First it is limited to calendar schedules; second it only focuses on single business units in case of large organization. But companies can find the solution to the problem if they attack its root problems. Various firms have stopped the calendar-driven meeting and replaced it with continuous and making decision which is issue focused. References Birkinshaw, J., Healey, M.P., Suddaby, R. and Weber, K., 2014. Debating the future of management research.Journal of Management Studies,51(1), pp.38-55. Bronzite, M., 2012.System development: a strategic framework. Springer Science Business Media. Daellenbach, H., McNickle, D. and Dye, S., 2012.Management science: decision-making through systems thinking. Palgrave macmillan. De Reuver, M., Bouwman, H. and Haaker, T., 2013. Business model roadmapping: A practical approach to come from an existing to a desired business model.International Journal of Innovation Management,17(01), p.1340006. Hammond, J.S., Keeney, R.L. and Raiffa, H., 2015.Smart choices: A practical guide to making better decisions. Harvard Business Review Press. Johnston, R.E. and Bate, J.D., 2013.The power of strategy innovation: a new way of linking creativity and strategic planning to discover great business opportunities. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. Laguna, M. and Marklund, J., 2013.Business process modeling, simulation and design. Mankins, M.C. and Steele, R., 2006. Stop making plans; start making decisions.Harvard business review,84(1), p.76. Norton, K.S. and Marmaros, D.P., Google Inc., 2013.Automatically schedule and re-schedule meetings using reschedule factors for conflicting calendar events. U.S. Patent 8,375,034. Proctor, T., 2014.Creative problem solving for managers: developing skills for decision making and innovation. Routledge. Rumelt, R.P., 2012. Good strategy/bad strategy: The difference and why it matters.Strategic Direction,28(8). Vaccaro, I.G., Jansen, J.J., Van Den Bosch, F.A. and Volberda, H.W., 2012. Management innovation and leadership: The moderating role of organizational size.Journal of Management Studies,49(1), pp.28-51.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
England Labor Report (1800S) Labor Report Our country is in a very diabolical state. We are going through a Jurassic change. We are moving along the roads of improvement along with falling down hill in some areas. Our industries are heightening but one thing we haven't come to mind about is the workers and there conditions. We shield our selves from what the workers go through. On may take a step into a factory and truly realize the horror. They see the face of suffering and pain. People are treated like dirt. They work for unlimited hours in an environment to what seems like a mud pit. The puddles of green water and the muddy uncovered floors, along with the cramping space is a true suffering. Working all day long in what seems to be the vast out limits of hell. The harsh conditions in the many industrial towns of England need to be fixed. The overall poverty level has heightened as well as the death rate for persons under 50. Many have come to investigate these poor conditions and yet nothing has been done to stop them, or improve them. Most industrious city's have relied on the poor to do the dirty work. This is totally based upon the working conditions in the many factories located all across towns in England. The factories are so dirty and unclean, it's like a pig sty. You would think that that the people inside the factories threw dirt around all day long. The dirt and unclean conditions have effected the health of many. In such harsh conditions how is one suppose to work? Not only is the condition of the factories effecting the workers health, the lack of food and water is also. Workers have to get through the day with getting little or possibly no food, and many of the workers had to eat the food and work at the same time. The food wo uld then get all dirty, thus causing more health problems. The drinking water was found to be contaminated with dangerous bacteria's and several diseases. All these queries have a multitude of evidence to support it. These are only some of the cruel things factory workers are put to. Just these conditions should be enough to stop all harsh labour of any type. Some might say Well, those workers are poor any way, but even so, they are still human right? No human should ever be forced to work in such a filth filled environment. Men and women of all ages are being forced top work, even children! Even the youngest of all workers doesn't get to see the light of day cooped up working their little hands starving and seeking rest. We need a change, a change in law. A law to abolish such types of labour. There is a great fury of evidence that has been collected to support the abolishment of this cruel labour. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Evidence #1 Frank Forrest, Chapters in the Life of a Dundee Factory Boy (1850) About a week after I became a mill boy, I was seized with a strong, heavy sickness, that few escape on first becoming factory workers. The cause of the sickness, which is known by the name of mill fever, is the contaminated atmosphere produced by so many breathing in a confined space, together with the heat and exhalations of grease and oil and the gas needed to light the establishment. #2 Elizabeth Bentley, interviewed by Michael Sadler's Parliamentary Committee on 4th June, 1832. I worked from five in the morning till nine at night. I lived two miles from the mill. We had no clock. If I had been too late at the mill, I would have been quartered. I mean that if I had been a quarter of an hour too late, a half an hour would have been taken off. I only got a penny an hour, and they would have taken a halfpenny. #3 First, as to the extent and operation of the evils which are the subject of this inquiry That the various forms of epidemic, endemic, and other disease caused, or aggravated, or propagated chiefly amongst the labouring classes by atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances, by damp and filth, and close
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Tipos de visas de trabajo y casos en que aplican Estados Unidos permite cada aÃ ±o que miles de extranjeros ingresen al paÃ s para trabajar legalmente en una amplÃ sima variedad de profesiones y ocupaciones. Este derecho se concede por medio de ms de una veintena de diferentes visas de trabajo, que pueden ser permanentes o temporales. En este Ã ºltimo caso, el titular debe renovarla, cambiar su situaciÃ ³n migratoria o salir del paÃ s una vez que su visa expire. Visas de inmigrante: tarjeta de residencia o green card Las personas con habilidades extraordinarias puedan solicitar una visa EB-1. Aplica a deportistas, cientÃ ficos, educadores, empresarios y artistas de reconocido prestigio como, por ejemplo, los ganadores de un premio Nobel o de una medalla olÃ mpica. Estas personas pueden solicitar la visa por sÃ mismas rellenando el formulario I-140 del Servicio de CiudadanÃ a e InmigraciÃ ³n de los Estados Unidos (USCIS, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s). Profesores universitarios, investigadores, ejecutivos de multinacionales, personas con estudios de doctorado finalizados o licenciados con al menos cinco aÃ ±os de experiencia laboral, deportistas, artistas, cientÃ ficos o empresarios con habilidades excepcionales pueden conseguir una visa de trabajo permanente EB-2. A diferencia de las EB-1, las visas EB-2 exigen que la peticiÃ ³n sea realizada por un empleador de Estados Unidos. Es decir, requiere la existencia previa de una oferta de trabajo concreta. Adems, es necesario obtener una certificaciÃ ³n laboral individual del Departamento de Trabajo de Estados Unidos. La Ã ºnica excepciÃ ³n a esta certificaciÃ ³n es poder demostrar ante el USCIS que se tiene capacidad especial que puede favorecer los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos. Asimismo, tambiÃ ©n pueden obtener una visa permanente de trabajo, en este caso una EB-3, los profesionales con estudios universitarios, los trabajadores con conocimientos especiales con al menos dos aÃ ±os de experiencia o entrenamiento o, incluso, trabajadores sin habilidades especiales. En estos casos es necesario cumplir con los siguientes requisitos: que un empresario en Estados Unidos realice una oferta de trabajo permanente y a tiempo completo.que el empleador no encuentre en ese momento a una persona estadounidense o residente permanente que pueda cubrir el puesto de trabajo vacante.que el Departamento de Trabajo certifique la capacidad laboral de la persona extrajera.que el empleador presente ante el USCIS el formulario I-140 y demuestre la capacidad para pagar el salario que ofrece por el trabajo. Adems, situaciones muy diferentes como ser mÃ ©dico, haber trabajador en la Zona del Canal de Panam, ser monja o cura, trabajar para una organizaciÃ ³n internacional, como la ONU o la OEA, o haber trabajador para la OTAN puede dar derecho a ser beneficiario de una visa de trabajo permanente EB-4. El formulario a rellenar es el I-360 y el cÃ ³nyuge e hijos solteros menores de 21 aÃ ±os de las personas que obtengan un visado EB-4 pueden residir legalmente en Estados Unidos. Por Ã ºltimo, la persona extranjera que invierta un millÃ ³n de dÃ ³lares -o medio millÃ ³n si la inversiÃ ³n se hace en una determinada zona que el gobierno favorece con el objetivo de crear empleo- y genere un mÃ nimo de 10 puestos de trabajo tiene derecho a obtener la visa permanente EB-5. Visas de trabajo temporal Existen una veintena de visas temporales para trabajar en Estados Unidos y que solicitan profesionales tan distintos como modelos, ingenieros, enfermeras, trabajadores temporales del campo o personas con habilidades artÃ sticas o cientÃ ficas especiales.Ã Una de las visas ms populares es la H-1B. Salvo en el caso de los modelos, las personas titulares de esta visa deben poseer un tÃ tulo universitario y deben trabajar en un campo considerado por las autoridades estadounidenses como una Ã¢â¬Å"ocupaciÃ ³n especialÃ¢â¬ . Entre los profesionales que pueden beneficiarse de esta visa se encuentran, entre otros, maestros, ingenieros, arquitectos, abogados y matemticos. Cada aÃ ±o se fija por ley el nÃ ºmero de visas H-1B que pueden concederse, siendo en la actualidad 65,000. Pero existen un cupo de 20,000 para las personas que hayan obtenido sus maestrÃ as o doctorados en universidades estadounidenses. Cuando el nÃ ºmero de solicitantes excede al cupo de visas disponible se realiza unaÃ loterÃ a de visas. Asimismo, existen cupos especiales para los nacionales de ciertos paÃ ses como Chile, para quien se reserva un cupo de 1,400 visas. Y no estn sujetas a cupo las visas otorgadas a trabajadores de centros de investigaciÃ ³n. Una buena alternativa para la visa H-1 son las TN para profesionales, pero sÃ ³lo pueden sacarla canadienses y mexicanos. Estas son las 60 profesiones que permiten aplicar por estas visas. Otras visas temporales populares son la O-1, para personas con habilidades extraordinarias en las ciencias, las artes, el deporte o el mundo de los negocios. La P-1A para deportistas reconocidos (incluidos jugadores profesionales de videojuegos, a quien InmigraciÃ ³n equipara a deportistas de Ã ©lite). Otras visas son la P-1B, P-2 y P-3 para los artistas de prestigio y la H-2A para trabajadores agrÃ colas y las H-2B para temporeros en actividades que no estn relacionadas con la agricultura o las C1/D para trabajar en cruceros para los que es necesario ingresar a Estados Unidos para embarcar en el barco en el que se va a trabajar. Los cruceros que inician sus viajes en EE.UU. contratan cada aÃ ±o a miles de personas en distintas calidades de trabajos, muchos son extranjeros. Frecuentemente, agencias de contrataciÃ ³n seleccionan a los empleados para cruceros. Los sueldos que se brindan son superiores al salario mÃ nimo en Estados Unidos. Otra visa con particularidades propias en la B-1 para empleados domÃ ©sticos. Por Ã ºltimo, destacan las de la familia J-1 (visas de intercambio). Con ellas se puede trabajar temporalmente en EEUU en capacidades muy distintas, como por ejemplo: au pair (niÃ ±era)maestro (docente)prcticas profesionalesmÃ ©dicos que realizan la residencia en Estados Unidos para especializarsetrabajo en ONGs de Estados Unidos por programa J-1.Visa para universitarios extranjeros para trabajar en USA durante el veranoVisa para monitores de campamento en USA Familiares: cÃ ³nyuge e hijos Salvo excepciones, como en el caso de las visas L-1A y L-1B concedidas a ejecutivos y gerentes enviados por sus empresas a trabajar a sus oficinas en Estados Unidos. Otro caso es el de los supuestos de las visas tipo E otorgadas a cierto tipo de comerciantes e inversionistas, los cÃ ³nyuges de las personas beneficiadas por una visa de trabajo temporal podrn vivir legalmente en Estados Unidos, pero no podrn dispondrn de permiso de trabajo. Recientemente se cambiÃ ³ esta regla pero sÃ ³lo para casos muy excepcionales de personas que tengan una H-4 En muchos casos se puede, adems, obtener una visa derivada para los hijos solteros menores de 21 aÃ ±os. Si estn estudiando la primaria o la secundaria es muy importante familiarizarse cuanto antes con las particularidades y opciones que brinda el sistema educativo de los Estados Unidos. TramitaciÃ ³n urgente de las visas de trabajo Por Ã ºltimo, destacar que varias visas de trabajo (pero no todas) permiten su tramitaciÃ ³n por vÃ a rpida, rellenando el formulario I-907 y pagando $1,225 a mayores. AsÃ pues, la inmigraciÃ ³n para trabajar en Estados Unidos est abierta. En algunos casos la misma persona puede optar por ms de un tipo de visa. Antes de elegir deber examinar con cuidado los requisitos de cada una, el nÃ ºmero de visas que se conceden anualmente en cada categorÃ a y los meses e incluso aÃ ±os de espera que existen en algunas de ellas. Tiempos de demora Verifica las semanas o meses (o aÃ ±os) que hay que esperar para diversos trmites migratorios: Corte, visas, residencia, PERM para obtener autorizaciÃ ³n del Departamento de Trabajo o solicitudes al USCIS. De interÃ ©s Estas son las 30Ã profesiones donde ms crecer la demanda de empleo en los prÃ ³ximos ocho aÃ ±os, segÃ ºn el Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos. Este artÃ culo es informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Take home exam for law and ethics - Essay Example It is in this respect wherein the concept of the best practices in corporate governance emerged. An important element that constitutes best practices in corporate governance is transparency. This can be in the form of disclosure, which most capital markets require from its listed companies. What is recommended here is for such corporate policy to be codified as part of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and regulations. For example, Berghe wrote that majority of best practices in corporate governance in the area of transparency is the explicit rule in the code that financial performance, including the related interests of the members of the board should be reported in the annual report to shareholders.1 In addition to the disclosure of the financial reports, best practices mandate that other pertinent information should also be made available, including, but not limited to, instances of share ownership and voting rights. The names of the board members, managers (including their compensation) should not remain hidden as well. The significance of these variables variable has been demonstrated in the bankruptcy of Enron. It was only during the intense media and government scrutiny after the company announced its financial woes that the exorbitant compensation packages of its executives were revealed along with its Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ accounting practices. Certainly, the importance of disclosure in corporate governance is particularly highlighted during crises. If full transparency is ensured, audit, performance evaluations, and other assessments and mechanisms can function properly in order to ensure that the organization is on track in achieving its objectives and compatible with sound corporate governance. Another component of best practices is the explicit rule in a corporate code of best practices to establish ethical and corporate governance standards. A number of stock